A quarter step?

How do I say “half step”?

“Half step” isn’t technically a unit of length. It’s the number of semitones we need to shorten up. So a quarter step works like this: 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 … and then just like a half note you do half semitext. So, it means we just need to make the numbers up to 4 and 8.

What is an octave?

An octave is an increase in pitch from 1, 2, 3 … to 8.

A common misconception of octaves is that you can simply add all the numbers up and multiply them together to get the entire scale. It is only possible to add together a certain number of semitones, so a quarter or a half note is the closest representation of it.

So a quarter will add up to 1 and we will start to get to two but then it takes us right back down. So, we’ll only ever see eight semitones so you have to remember this number.

So for a fourth (fourth degree): A4 / 12 and for a third (third degree): 7 / 14 and so on. So here you go! And you can also multiply these up the natural way to get the whole scale. So we’ll say we’re at 10 semitones and now we’re starting to get to four semitones.

So an octave is just doubling the number of semitones. So the whole fourth (fourth degree) will become 7 / 14 to make another fifth note. It’s a way of thinking about the difference between a note (fourth degree or octave) and it’s octave.

So you can make up to five semitones with just this one rule of thumb, just from one. So if you want to multiply up a second (second degree), just add an octave. So we could say we’re doubling the second (second degree) so now we are getting to seven semitones. As you might have guessed from that we also get two thirds so we get two eighth notes.

The third note (3rd degree) is always 8 semitones so here is sixteenth note.

So you can make a quarter octave, or a fourth octave, or the fifth octave. You just got to put down the steps.

There you have it, all the different ways

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