One of the main criticisms of the study was that the data did not allow the researchers to determine whether the number of months in the current follow-up period is different from the number of months in the initial follow-up period. The authors of the study said that, because they did not have a way to control for time differences in the follow-up period, it is possible that the time differences in the previous follow-up period may affect the results. Although the study design limits the possibility of a time effect, they also found that the age and sex of the participants played a significant role in the results.
What did the researchers find?
The researchers found that there was no effect of smoking initiation on lung cancer mortality from men aged 40 to 64 years. Smoking cessation with an ever use of a quit smoking aid such as nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with a lower risk of lung cancer mortality in adults under 40 years of age.
In addition, the researchers found no significant association between starting smoking within the 10th year of follow-up and decreased lung cancer mortality from men aged 40 to 64 years.
Conclusions and implications
The authors noted that although lung cancer deaths were lower among smokers than non-smokers with a follow-up of 4 years, the study does not preclude the possibility that a shorter duration of follow-up than the 4 year study period is associated with a higher reduced risk. Although there was no association between lung cancer mortality and tobacco use within the past year, their study did not demonstrate that longer duration of follow-up than four-eight years does not have an equivalent protective effect.
The study should not necessarily be considered conclusive, as these results do not exclude the possibility that there is a significant association between smoking initiation with a longer duration of follow-up and lung cancer mortality, which cannot be ruled out by such a study.
The authors suggested that future efforts should be made to further explore the potential beneficial effect of smoking cessation with use of quit smoking aids, and to further investigate the effect of smoking initiation by the tenth year of follow-up.
Conclusion—There was no association between smoking initiation and lung cancer mortality in adults 65 years and older.
The New York Times had an interesting report Tuesday, which highlighted how, despite a spate of recent “fusion centers,” little is known about them and how they function.
The centers were started by private groups or organizations—like, say, the Council on American-
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